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            地球变绿,我国做了多大奉献?卫星遥感有图有本相

            admin 2019-08-20 292人围观 ,发现0个评论


            地球变得更绿了,我国的奉献份额居首。

            The earth has become greener, with China leading the way.

            这一定论来自于美国宇航局(NASA)对地观测卫星Aqua和Terra的数据。

            This conclusion has been reached from data compiled by NASA's Aqua and Terra earth observation satellites.

            2000年至2017年间,全球美化面积添加了5%,其间25%来自我国。而事实上我国的植被面积仅占全球的6.6%。那么,这些改变是怎样发作的呢?

            From 2000 to 2017, the global areas covered by greenery increased by 5%, of which, 25% of such territory lies in China. In fact, China only accounts for 6.6% of global vegetation coverage. So, how did these changes happen?

            为此,咱们约请我国科学院遥感与数字地球研讨所长时间从事植被改变监测的专家,用长长长长的一串数字和卫星遥感印象告知你答案。

            To this end, we have invited experts from the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences who have been engaged in monitoring vegetation change for a long period of time, to explain the process with the sufficient statistical data and satellite remote sensory images.

            本年早些时候,一篇由美国波士顿大学领衔、美国宇航局首要赞助的多国协作研讨论文宣告在《天然-可继续发展》期刊上,这篇题为《我国和印度通过土地利用办理引领国际变绿》的论文发现:2000—2017年,我国和印度主导了全球陆地变绿(植被叶面积的添加)。更重要的是,在我国变绿的过程中,森林奉献了42%,大于农用地的32%,远大于印度4.4%的森林奉献率。

            Earlier this year, a multinational cooperative research paper led by Boston University and mainly funded by NASA was published in Nature Sustainability. The paper was entitled 'China and India Lead in Greening of the World Through The Land-Use Management', and found that during the period from 2000 to 2017, China and India dominated global land greening (increases in leaf-covered areas). More importantly, in the process of turning China greener, forests contributed 42%, greater than the 32% contribution of agricultural land and much more than India's forest contribution of 4.4%.



            ▲ Source: https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/56452684, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-019-0220-7


            这些年来,我国为维护地球都做了什么?

            Over the Years, What Has China Done to Protect the Earth?


            能取得这一效果,我国的造林护林活动是重要原因。

            China's afforestation and forest protection are crucial parts of the results achieved.

            从20世纪70年代以来,我国先后启动了许多严重生态建造工程,其间与陆地变绿直接相关的至少有6个:“三北”防护林工程、天然林资源维护工程、退耕还林(草)工程、长江/珠江流域防护林工程、京津风沙源管理工程、退牧还草工程。这些工程掩盖了我国的绝大部分地区。

            Since the 1970s, China has successively launched many large ecological projects, including six projects which are directly related to land greening: the "Three-North" Shelter Forest Program, the Natural Fo地球变绿,我国做了多大奉献?卫星遥感有图有本相rest Resource Protection Project, the Project of Returning Farmland to Forest (Grass), the Shelterbelt Forestry Project of the Yangtze/Pearl River Basin, the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Project and the Project of Returning Grazing Lands to Grasslands. These projects cover most of the regions of China.

            “三北”防护林工程,1979年开端施行,触及13个省市区,工程建造总面积406.9万平方公里,占全国陆地总面积的42.4%,至今总出资约500多亿元。

            Beginning in 1979, the "Three-North" Shelter Forest Program involving 13 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government, has achieved a total construction area of 4.069 million square kilometers, accounting for 42.4% of China's total land area, with total investment adding up to more than 50 billion yuan so far.


            天然林资源维护工程,1998年开端试点,触及17个省区、724个县、160个重点企业、14个天然维护区等,到2004年累积出资488.3亿元。

            Beginning in 1998, the Natural Forest Resource Protection Project involving 724 counties, 160 key enterprises and 14 nature reserves in 17 provinces and autonomous regions, reached cumulative investment of 48.83 billion yuan by 2004.

            退耕还林(草)工程,始于1999年,触及25个省区、1897个县区,是迄今为止国际上最大的生态建造工程,仅中心投入的工程资金就超越4300多亿元。

            Having been started in 1999, the Project of Returning Farmland to Forest (Grass) involves 1,897 counties in 25 provinces and autonomous regions. It is one of the largest ever ecological project to be carried out worldwide. The central government alone has invested more than 430 billion yuan in the project.

            长江/珠江流域防护林工程,一期为1989—2010年,依据森林清查材料及林业核算年鉴,共造林约6.3万平方公里、育林约5.5万平方公里。二期触及的规模更广,其间长江流域防护林二期工程包含17个省(市)的1033个县(市、区),规划造林使命6.9万平方公里。

            Phase I of the Shelterbelt Forestry Project of the Yangtze/Pearl River Basin was carried out between 1989 and 2010. According to forest inventory data and the forestry statistical yearbook, a total of 63,000 square kilometers of forest were planted and 55,000 square kilometers were afforested. The Phase II covers a wider range, of which the Shelterbelt Forestry Project of the Yangtze River Basin Phase II includes 1,033 counties (cities and urban districts) in 17 provinces (municipalities directly under the Central Government) with a planned afforestation task of 69,000 square kilometers.

            京津风沙源管理工程,始于2002年,触及北京、天津、河北、山西及内蒙古等五省(区、市)的75个县,总面积45.8万平方公里,一期工程开始匡算出资558亿元。

            Having begun in 2002, the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Project involves 75 counties across five provinces (autonomous region and municipalities directly under the Central Government) including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia, with a total area of 458,000 square kilometers. The initial estimated investment for Phase I is 55.8 billion yuan.

            退牧还草工程,自2003年以来,北方7省区退牧还草工程约64万平方公里,中心已累计投入资金295.7亿元。

            Since 2003, the Project of Returning Grazing Lands to Grasslands has covered 640,000 square kilometers in seven northern provinces and autonomous regions. The Central Government has invested 29.57 billion yuan in the project.


            数据告知你:绿色奇观是怎样发作的

            Data Illustrate the Reasons Behind this Green Miracle


            要了解我国这些造林工程的效果,调查数据的改变是最直接的。在生态环境改变监测范畴,使用最广泛的技能是通过卫星遥感获取地球印象,然后进行继续不断的观测。

            The most effective way to understand the results of these afforestation projects in China is to observe changes in collected data. In the field of ecological environment change monitoring, the most widely used technology is that of acquiring images of the earth for continuous monitoring through remote satellite sensing.

            下面用几组数据和印象告知你,绿色奇观是怎样发的。

            Here are a few sets of data and images which illustrate the reasons behind this green miracle.

            在遥感使用范畴,点评植被掩盖及植被成长状况常用的目标是“植被指数”,其间“归一化植被指数”(NDVI)的使用最为广泛。NDVI越高,一般植被掩盖率越高。

            In the field of remote sensing applications, the "vegetation index" is widely used for evaluating vegetation coverage and vegetation growth and the "normalized difference vegetation index" (NDVI) is most widely used. In general, the higher the NDVI, the higher the vegetation coverage.

            核算发现,我国、印度及欧洲大部分国家2015年NDVI相关于1982年有显着的添加,阐明这些国家陆地显着变绿了;而整个北美国家、澳大利亚、非洲与南美洲南部国家的NDVI呈下降趋势。

            The NDVI(at the national level) in China, India and most European countries show significant increases in 2015 compared with 1982, indicating that the land of these countries has turned significantly green. However, the NDVI in the countries in North America, Australia, Africa and South America showed a decreasing trend in 2015 compared with 1982.



            再提出一个衡量的目标——净初级生产力(NPP)

            Another measurement indicator is net primary productivity (NPP).

            NPP是植物通过光协作用,固定大气中二氧化碳后构成的光合产物量或有机碳量,是生态系统中其他生物生计和繁殖的物质基础。

            NPP is the amount of photosynthetic products or organic carbon formed by plants after converting the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through photosynthesis, and is the material basis for the survival and reproduction of other organisms in the ecosystem.

            剖析2000—2014年全球国家标准的NPP空间散布和每年的改变后,能够发现,全球国家标准的NPP散布中,53个国家占有全球90%以上的NPP总量,前3、前12名国家别离占有全球30%、60%以上的NPP总量。我国约占全球NPP总量的5%,居国际第四位。不过不能忽视的是,因为我国西部区域大面积为荒漠或稀少植被区,单位面积均匀NPP值约为300gC/㎡/y,全球排名并不靠前,与加拿大、澳大利亚、印度等国差不多。

            We quantifies moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP from 2000 to 2014 at the country level, and the results show that the combined NPP for 53 countries represents >90% of global NPP. The top three and top 12 countries accounted for 30% and 60% of total global NPP, respectively. China accounts for about 5% of the world's total NPP, ranking 4th globally. However, it cannot be ignored that western China is mostly covered by desert or sparse vegetation, and the average NPP per unit area in China is about 300gC/㎡/y — not high in the global ranking, at a similar level compared to Canada, Australia, India and other countries.



            ▲(a)2000—2014年像元标准(编者注:像元,是构成遥感数字图画的根本单元。)NPP年均匀值空间散布

            Spatial distribution of average annual pixel scale NPP from 2000 to 2014

            (Editor's Note: Pixels are the basic units that make up remote sensing)

            (b)国家标准年NPP总量空间散布

            Spatial distribution of annual total NPP at national scale

            (c)国家标准单位面积NPP值空间散布

            Spatial distribution of mean national NPP per unit area

            (d)占全球NPP总量90%以上的前53个国家NPP总量

            Average annual country-level NPP (2000–2014) for the top 53 countries representing >90% of the total global NPP

            Source: http://www.science direct.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716319507

            就2000—2014年改变趋势来看,我国大面积区域NPP是在上涨的,尤其是西部区域。几个NPP大国中,我国的NPP年净添加约11Tg C,远大于NPP总量排在第一位的巴西(5Tg C/y)、第三位的美国(2Tg C/y)。

            According to the trend of change from 2000 to 2014, NPP in large parts of China is rising, especially in western regions. Among several countries with high NPP, China's NPP has increased by about 11Tg C per year, far exceeding that of Brazil (~5Tg C/y) — ranking 1st in terms of total NPP — and the United States (~2Tg C/y) — ranking 3rd.



            ▲ (a)2000—2014年像元标准NPP年际改变率空间散布

            Pixel scale: Spatial地球变绿,我国做了多大奉献?卫星遥感有图有本相 distribution of inter-annual variation rate of NPP from 2000 to 2014

            (b)2000—2014年国家标准NPP年改变率空间散布

            National Scale: Spatial distribution of inter-annual variation rate of NPP from 2000 to 2014

            Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716319507

            关于2000—2014年我国区域的NPP年际改变率来说,“三北”防护林工程的大部分区域都出现添加的趋势,尤其是陕西省。

            For the inter-annual variation rate of NPP in China from 2000 to 2014, most areas of the "Three-North" Shelter Forest Program show an increasing trend, especially in Shaanxi Province.



            ▲ 2000—2014年我国像元标准NPP年际改变率空间散布(图中墨绿色粗线为“三北”防护林工程五期界限)

            Spatial distribution of the inter-annual variation rate of NPP at the pixel scale in China from 2000 to 2014 (The dark green thick line in the figure is the boundary line of Phase V of the "Three-North" Shelter Forest Program)

            除了改变的数字之外,一望而知的图画更能阐明问题。

            In addition to the statistical changes, the image is fairly self-explanatory.

            首要看看陕西省榆林市

            The first area reviewed is the city of Yulin in Shaanxi Province.

            通过美国Landsat系列卫星的1987、2014年数据进行分类,能够发现:榆林市2014年林地面积约是1987年的4倍,2014年裸土面积仅是1987年的四分之一;不仅如此,草地面积也添加了0.3万平方公里。

            According to the classification from the American Landsat series satellite images of 1987 and 2014, the forested land area in Yulin in 2014 was about four times higher than that of 1987, and the bare land area in 2014 was only one quarter of that of 1987. In addition, the grassland area increased by 3,000 square kilometers.



            从下面这两幅卫星印象中能更直观地看出榆林这一区域的状况,1984年仍是大片沙地或裸土的区域,2016年现已被植被大面积掩盖了。

            The following two satellite images show Yulin clearly. It was a large area of sand or bare land in 1984, but was covered in vegetation by 2016.



            ▲ 以东经10843′14.916″,北纬3741′0.996″为观测中心点拍照的榆林

            Yulin, taken at 10843′14.916″E-3741′0.996″N

            再看看同属陕西省的宝鸡市

            Another illustration covers the city of Baoji in Shaanxi Province.

            宝鸡市邻近,1984年尽管有些植被,但植被掩盖率不过40%左右,而32年后的2016年,植被掩盖率达90%以上。据《我国林业核算年鉴》,宝鸡仅2002—2016年间,总造林4064.9平方公里,人工造林2117.06平方公里,飞播造林779.51平方公里,新封山育林1168.33平方公里。

            Although there was some vegetation in the vicinity of Baoji in 1984, the vegetation coverage rate was only about 40%, while 32 years later in 2016, the vegetation coverage rate exceeded 90%. According to the China Forestry Statistical Yearbook, from 2002 to 2016, Baoji introduced a total afforestation area of 4,064.9 square kilometers, including an artificial afforestation area of 2,117.06 square kilometers, an aerial afforestation area of 779.51 square kilometers and newly closed hillsides for afforestation of 1,168.33 square kilometers.



            ▲ 以东经10710′50.01″,北纬3452′04.29″为观测中心点拍照的宝鸡邻近

            Vicinity of Baoji, taken at 10710′50.01″ E-3452′04.29″N

            还有甘肃省天水市

            The next illustration is the city of Tianshui, Gansu Province.

            从卫星印象上看,20世纪80年代所见之处多为裸地,据《我国林业核算年鉴》,仅2002—2016年间,天水总造林3427.56平方公里,人工造林2877.52平方公里,飞播造林29.45平方公里,新封山育林520.59平方公里。现在的天水市一片生气勃勃,享有西北“小江南”之称。

            The satellite images show that duringthe 1980s, most of the land in the area was bare. According to the China Forestry Statistical Yearbook, during the period from 2002 to 2016 alone, Tianshui benefited from afforestation of 3,427.56square kilometers, including artificial afforestation of 2,877.52 square kilometers, afforestation by aerial seeding of 29.45 square kilometers and newly closed hillsides for afforestation covering 520.汽车陪练59 square kilometers. Today, Tianshui is a lush city, enjoying the fame of “rich area south of the Yangtze River” in the northwest.



            ▲ 以东经10610′53.97″,北纬3453′11.03″为观测中心点拍照的天水

            Tianshui, taken at 10610′53.97″E-3453′11.03″ N


            最值得一提的是坐落河北的绿色奇观塞罕坝

            The most noteworthy is the green miracle — Saihanba, Hebei Province.

            从下面两幅卫星印象中能直观地看出:相关于1984年,2016年塞罕坝森林掩盖率得到了显着提高。

            The two satellite images below show that the forest coverage rate of Saihanba increased significantly in 2016 compared to 1984.



            ▲ 以东经11725′34.824″,北纬4228′57.36″为观测中心点拍照的塞罕坝

            Saihanba, taken at 11725′34.824″ E-4228′57.36″N

            从材料图片上也能够看出,新我国建立前塞罕坝区域根本上满是荒漠,而通过三代人50多年的不懈努力,塞罕坝的森林掩盖率从11.4%提高到80%。现在的塞罕坝已是连片的人工林海。2017年12月联合国环境规划署宣告,我国塞罕坝林场建造者取得2017年联合国环保最高荣誉——“地球卫兵奖”。

            This photo shows that the Saihanba area was basically desert before the founding of the People's Republic of China. After more than 50 years of unremitting efforts across three generations, the forest coverage rate of Saihanba increased from 11.4% to 80%. Now, Saihanba is a contiguous artificial forest. In December 2017, the United Nations Environment Programme announced that the builders of the Saihanba Forest Farm in China were to be awarded the "Champions of the Earth" prize in 2017 — the United Nations' highest honor for environmental protection.



            新我国建立前的塞罕坝荒漠

            Saihanba desert before the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949.



            ▲ Source: https://www.diyitui.com/content-1533789034.74527271.html


            今天塞罕地球变绿,我国做了多大奉献?卫星遥感有图有本相坝,具有全国面积最大的会集连片的人工林海。

            Now, Saihanba is home to the largest contiguous artificial forest in China.

            我国是国际上人工造林面积最大的国家,

            现在森林掩盖率现已达到了22%。

            China is home to the largest artificial afforestation area in the world, and its forest coverage rate has reached 22%.

            在应对气候改变、解救地球家乡方面,

            我国从来没有只停留在口头许诺上。

            In tackling climate change and saving the earth, China has been moving forward with earnest.

            绿水青山便是金山银山,未来,我国将会有更多当地诞生绿色奇观,

            荒漠变林海。

            Green hills and clearwaters are gold & silver mountains. In the future, an even greaternumber of places in China will be home to green miracles, transforming deserts to forests.


            作者 / 我国科学院遥感与数字地球研讨所副研讨员彭代亮、研讨生张赫林、研讨员张兵

            Author / Associate Professor Peng Dailiang, Graduate Student Zhang Helin, Professor Zhang Bing, the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

            修改 / 安静、董翎依

            图片 / 网络

            美编 / 高铭



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